Egg cells cytoplasm is liquid containing organelles (mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, cytoplasmic reticulum and others). It intermediates the transfer of information between the individual organelles and assures the insemination process. At first, it has to "dissolve" all sperm structures, except for the genetic material (24 chromosomes, coming from the man) and through cytoplasmic spindles to arrange, in a mirrored way, into pairs with the 24 chromosomes included in the egg cell. Subsequently, the mirrored arranged chromosomes are joined in one full set and then divided into 2, 4, 8… cells with continuous accession of genetic information.
Cytoplasm is significantly engaged in the reproductive processes. Many of its functions, however, have not been described yet. Through its mitochondria it supplies the energy to all reproductive processes. Mitochondria have their own chromosomes (200-500,000 copies of mitochondrial DNA in one cell), which on 37 genes code 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA.
They exclusively originate in the egg cell (thus they are inherited only through the maternal line). This excludes the correction of potential randomly occurred disorders (mutations) through a set of chromosomes from a man. However, cell division causes "dilution" of this mutation.
If the percentage of mutations at one area of a chromosome exceeds 70%, a disease (disorder) may emerge. A lower percentage may represent a minor disorder (it especially applies to highly energetically demanding processes- i.e. reproduction and cell division).
Possible Corrections to Cytoplasmic and Mitochondrial Disease