Egg ageing. With increasing age, a higher number of mutations (failures) occur in the genetic material of each cell. Egg quality statistically decreases over age 35, or earlier in many circumstances (smoking, operations, immunological diseases). Mutations in cytoplasm (ooplasm, mitochondria) are 10 times higher than in nuclei. A decrease in cytoplasmic function starts earlier than the decrease in the quality of genetic material in the egg nucleus.
Indications for CT are: idiopathic infertility, premature ovarian failure, abortions, previous IVF failure, low egg quality, poor embryo quality, embryo developmental arrest, high fragmentation of embryos,
Method: 5-15 % donor cytoplasm is transferred to a recipient oocyte. Cytoplasm contains mitochondria, enzymes and other organelles. Donor cytoplasm improves recipient cytoplasm function in fertilization, early embryo development and implantation. An injection of a bolus of cytoplasm from a healthy donor could restore global mitochondrial activity and rejuvenate the recipient oocyte.
Cytoplasmic function: – in 1990 we talked about unknown cytoplasmic factors. Now we better understand the importance of mitochondria in fertilization and early embryo development. We have information about mitochondrial mutations and their influence on cell reproduction (Low mitochondrial function = low energy for the cell = impaired reproduction).
Mutations in mitochondrial DNA: Generally, mutations in “low quality oocytes“ which have been treated are 3x higher than in general population. In the case of 0-20 % mutation we could not detect any problems with fertilization. If the mutation varies between 20-80 %, we can expect lower mitochondrial function, low energy production and fertilization and early development failure. In case of more than 70 % mutation in one region of mitochondrial DNA, we can find symptoms of a mitochondrial disease.
If we diluted such mutations and add healthy mitochondria, we can improve fertilization and early development of embryos